The number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon is expected to exceed one million by the end of 2013. Tensions between host and refugee populations are expected to rise as competition over jobs and resources becomes even more important to the survival of both communities. This EMMA assessment was launched to analyze the key market systems upon which refugees and vulnerable host communities rely for income in the North and Bekaa Governorates of Lebanon in order to identify opportunities for humanitarian agencies to promote market-based income-earning possibilities for host and refugee populations. This report provides a summary of the findings for three market systems that are critical for refugee and Lebanese host communities as source of income, namely construction labor, agricultural labor, and service-sector labor. The opportunities for promoting or strengthening livelihoods related to the construction, services, or agricultural labor sectors are very limited. Each of these sectors has been significantly impacted by the crisis in Syria and is not capable of absorbing additional workers at a livable wage. Despite this bleak outlook, the EMMA makes several recommendations for narrowing the household income gap through vocational training, market-smart humanitarian programs, household financial assistance programs and the strengthening of local labor markets.