Currently, northern Sri Lanka is recovering from two different crises: the decades-long civil war between the government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam that ended in May 2009, and recent flooding due to heavy rainfall in January and February 2011 in the north and east of the country. This report presents the results of a rapid analysis of the rice market system in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka that took place shortly after the floods. The rice market system is functional, although with significant inefficiencies and imbalance of market power that could be ameliorated with interventions. The long-term conflict caused underdevelopment of infrastructure and insufficient services in the region. While direct flood damage in the region was relatively minor, the indirect and ongoing losses caused by unexpected rainy weather are high. Short to medium-term recommendations include supporting storage and irrigation, diversifying production, improving market information and developing small enterprises with mills and equipment. Long-term development suggestions include supporting the growth of farmer organizations, constructing more sophisticated storage and financing options and the facilitation of higher-value rice production.