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An EMMA Study
January, 2012

This case study presents learning from an EMMA market assessment carried out in Liberia in April 2011, focused on imported rice and agricultural labor. It presents key findings for the rice market system before discussing successes and lessons learned from the exercise.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Nanthilde Kamara
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents results and recommendations from an EMMA that focused on the availability of cross-breed milking cows to meet the demand for farmers seeking to both replace their cattle lost during the end of the war and to expand livelihood options through milk production. It concludes that the milking cow system in Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu is functioning, but at a very low capacity relative to the demand, with few prospects to increase capacity in the near-term without outside assistance. Thus, it recommends advocating for fewer restrictions on cattle transportation, as well as providing support mechanisms to dairy farmers such as cash grants, Dairy Village programs and improvement of breeding practices. Importing milking cows from India and Pakistan is also suggested to quickly address the need for milk products in Sri Lanka.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Tharmaratnam Parthipan, Nadarasa Pusharaj, Nishanty Sivakumaran, Ajith Weerasinghe
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents the results and recommendations of an EMMA of the masonry labor market that seeks to understand how well the current masonry market is functioning relative to the demand for labor and whether there are opportunities to promote job creation in the sector. It concludes that the masonry market is functioning well; however, there is a scarcity of skilled masonry laborers in the region due to the extensive training period and lack of interest in the local community. This assessment concludes with two main recommendations, namely to support vocational training service providers to train unemployed youths in masonry, and to link these institutions with chief masons for advanced on-the-job training opportunities. Such recommendations will speed the engagement of local unemployed workers in the masonry sector and benefit those resettled families in need of homes and public buildings.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Gemuni Wijesena, S. Fawzardeen, T. Senthees, P. Perinpakumar
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Calamba City, Laguna
October, 2009

On September 26, 2009, tropical Typhoon Ketsana made landfall near Baler, Quezon Province in Philippines. This EMMA on the rice market system was conducted after Ketsana in Calamba City. It found out the rice prices were stable even after the crisis. However, local households experienced rice shortages, and local harvests were decreased by a significant amount. Given the market's quick rebound after the shock, it seems logical that food assistance, and rice in particular, should be delivered through local markets. This assessment recommends advocacy for closer coordination and communication between market, local government and humanitarian actors; advocacy for humanitarian and government agencies to strengthen assessment activities; the monitoring of market recovery; and cash transfers for vulnerable households, in some cases via cash for work programs.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people and destroying field crops. This assessment aimed to assist agencies in identifying appropriate program interventions and focused on the wheat seed, fodder and casual agricultural labor market systems in Punjab Province. For wheat seeds, this report recommends cash transfers to restore agricultural infrastructure; vouchers to ensure quality and appropriate agricultural inputs; support to extension services; and advocacy for land rights. For the casual agricultural labor market, this report recommends unconditional cash transfers; cash for work; income support for people unable to participate in cash for work programs; and income generating activities and vocational training. For the fodder market system, this report recommends cash for work to restore agricultural infrastructure for enabling normal seasonal employment patterns; vouchers for agricultural inputs; and advocacy around land rights.

Report authors: 
Caroline Ward
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Since the attacks of 2009 until 2012, unemployment in the Gaza Strip remains very high, and average wage levels remain low. Vulnerable households with low incomes and limited or no employment will continue to require support to meet their basic food and non-food needs. The study used a livelihoods perspective and looked at the broiler chicken market as an income market. It also looked at the impacts of the previous two wars to analyse what the impacts of a future similar crisis could be. In this sense, this study was really more of an early PCMMA than an EMMA. This report recommends supporting existing small-scale broiler producers; providing inputs to small-scale producers who experienced losses as a result of wars and who have the potential for sustainability to restart their production; the facilitation of follow-up trainings in poultry production management; advocacy with the Ministry of Agriculture to improve/provide positive support and registration for small-scale producers; advocacy to relevant ministries to provide compensation for losses resulting from conflicts and/or epidemics; facilitating access to credit providers for small-scale producers to prevent them remaining dependent on middlemen for financial services; and conducting further analysis on the chicken feed, gas and credit markets.

Report authors: 
Emmeline Saint
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December 2013 violence in South Sudan had killed thousands and displaced more than 900,000 people. It has also led to a serious deterioration in the food security situation, and some 3.7 million people are at high risk of food insecurity in the coming year. Food partners have so far reached about 865,000 people under the emergency operation between January and April 2014 with most of the food being distributed in-kind. The objectives of this market analysis were for Oxfam to explore alternatives to in-kind food aid in its different areas of interventions and to create a market baseline for three critical market systems, including red sorghum, maize flour and soap. This report recommends the following response activities: advocacy for integrating maize flour into the food aid distributed, and procuring both maize and sorghum food aid through Juba vendors; commodity vouchers for soap distribution; value vouchers as a top-up for basic needs; and conducting market analyses in other Oxfam intervention areas in South Sudan.

Report authors: 
Hélène Juillard
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Of the four major provinces affected by the monsoon floods in 2010, Sindh was the worst in numbers of people impacted and displaced. Over 30% of the more than 7.2 million flood-affected people in Sindh have been temporarily displaced, and planting for next year’s wheat crop is likely to be delayed. This report summarizes the findings of an inter-agency assessment team that looked at the impact of the devastating monsoon floods of 2010 on market systems in Sindh, Pakistan. Wheat flour, livestock fodder, agricultural labor, and bamboo/timber poles markets were selected for the assessment. The overall objective of the response options for the agricultural commodities is to restore the income of small farmers and agricultural laborers and strengthen their role in agricultural production and recovery. For the shelter materials, the objective is to support the repair and/or replacement of flood-damaged houses through local market systems, by promoting disaster-resistant construction technologies.

Report authors: 
Rick Bauer
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Jalozai Camp, North West Frontier Province
February, 2009

Conflict between the Taliban and Pakistani military forces in the North West Frontier Province, including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, has led to a mass movement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) to host communities and camps in safer surrounding districts. The overall socio-economic indicators in the IDP camps are dismal, largely due to inadequate health facilities, insufficient education opportunities and poor hygiene and sanitation amenities, compounded with a host of protection issues. This EMMA pilot was conducted to investigate the effect of the IDP crisis on the tomato market system in Jalozai Camp, 30 km outside of Peshawar. This report presents two main programming recommendations, support for kitchen gardening within the camp, and supporting extremely vulnerable individuals to start small businesses within the camp via small grants and business development training.

Report authors: 
Dee Goluba
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Jalozai Camp, North West Frontier Province
February, 2009

Conflict between the Taliban and Pakistani military forces in the North West Frontier Province, including the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, has led to a mass movement of internally displaced persons to host communities and camps in safer surrounding districts. The overall socio-economic indicators in the IDP camps are dismal, largely due to inadequate health facilities, insufficient education opportunities and poor hygiene and sanitation amenities, compounded with a host of protection issues. This EMMA pilot was conducted to investigate the effect of the IDP crisis on the tomato market system in Jalozai Camp, 30 km outside of Peshawar. Since the crisis, there has been a surge in scavenging for firewood as a source of both fuel and income by IDPs, who have very limited disposable income, with serious environmental implications. This report recommends the promotion of fuel efficient cooking techniques; providing fuel as an incentive for school attendance; and promoting firewood distribution with better environmental protection mechanisms.

Report authors: 
Dee Goluba
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