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Cyclone Nargis struck Myanmar in May 2008, leaving more than 84,000 people dead and more than 50,000 missing, including many skilled fishers and fish processors. Save the Children in Myanmar and Practical Action Consulting conducted this pilot of the EMMA toolkit in the Ayeyarwady Delta in July 2008 in order to explore how the tools and guidance could be applied in a real humanitarian emergency. The study focused on two market systems for analysis: small-scale fishing nets, which are critical for livelihoods and food security, and dhani-thatch panels, which are critical for shelter. This report recommends that, where possible, donors should buy small fishing nets from affected villages and not attempt to bypass market chain actors by purchasing in bulk from wholesalers in Yangon. However, donors may need to provide either credit to village retailers or act as guarantors to wholesalers on behalf of village retailers. For the thatch market system, this report suggests providing tarpaulins to affected households as a temporary measure. Permanent thatch shelter interventions may be more appropriate during the next thatch harvest.

Report authors: 
Anita Auerbach (née Yeomans), Mike Albu, Michael Leung
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Buthidaung Township, Rakhine State
October, 2013

The people of Rakhine State have suffered a long history of inter-communal conflict. Existing tensions between Buddhists and Muslims erupted into violent conflict in June and October 2012, resulting in massive population displacement and destruction of public and private properties, with many people injured or killed. The Consortium of Dutch NGOs led this EMMA study to investigate the potato and chemical fertilizer market systems. Among this report's most important recommendations are the distribution of vouchers for high energy food rations to vulnerable populations for households involved in casual labor and/or self employed; cash for work for populations that are involved in casual labor; cash grants for households to access vegetables and vegetable seeds; cash grants for households with access to land for purchase of production inputs; and model community savings and loan schemes or community micro-credit.

Report authors: 
Steven Lanjouw, U Khin Waung U
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Paletwa Township, Chin State
June, 2012

Chin State on the western border of Myanmar is characterized by chronic underdevelopment and poverty. Although considered an EMMA at the time, the study aimed to map the baseline rice market system in Paletwa Township under normal conditions in order to gain insight into how to improve people's livelihoods and food security in times of stress. In this sense, it was really an early PCMMA. This assessment recommends that any development or relief programs targeting Paletwa Township should seek to engage market actors so as to avoid doing harm. In addition, livelihoods support in the target area should focus on developing more sustainable, diversified and profitable strategies that help to protect the natural environment.

Report authors: 
Alan Moseley, Carol Ward
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Kyauk Phyu Township, Rakhine State
August, 2011

On October 22, 2010, Cyclone Giri made landfall on the western coast of Rakhine State, Myanmar, causing severe damage to houses, infrastructure, standing crops and fisheries. The EMMA in Rakhine aimed to establish an understanding of how the fishing sector had recovered since the cyclone and to look at opportunities to improve efficiency within the market system. It found that the fishing sector has recovered since Cyclone Giri; however, small and medium fishers continue to face difficulties in earning enough income from their production due to structural barriers or insecurity of their fishing grounds. The report recommends restoration and improvement of physical infrastructure, such as boats and storage facilities; strengthening human capital by improving the nutritional situation for households; providing cash grants, conditional cash transfers and other means of improving financial capital; strengthening networks with business, government, and NGOs; and advocating for more sustainable rehabilitation and management of natural capital.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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In recent years, the high frequency of severe droughts in the Horn of Africa has undermined the ability of households in the region to recover from these crises. This document summarizes the findings from an EMMA carried out on the water market system in Kenya's Wajir County from August-September 2012, before detailing the report's response recommendations. This report makes the following recommendations for market-based programming: supporting water access through water vouchers in villages with no borehole and through water vouchers for free water provision directly at boreholes where they exist; integrating cash for water into food security-focused cash transfer programs; improving the capacity of water points; and supporting the operation and maintenance of boreholes. The report recommends a number of complementary activities to improve the market environment, infrastructure and services.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Mukuru Informal Settlements
June, 2013

In the second half of 2011, Kenya witnessed one of the worst droughts in the recent past, which was exacerbated by high inflation, rising fuel prices and a weakened economy. Though poor households in Nairobi's informal settlements are vulnerable during emergencies, they are often ignored by the government and relief agencies. Oxfam conducted this market baseline assessment to identify the crisis' impacts on the maize, water and credit markets. To help ensure adequate maize consumption by vulnerable households, this assessment suggests cash grants for small shops, posho mills and food vendors, cooked food vouchers for vulnerable households, cash grants for very poor households (with in-kind food aid as a fallback) and advocacy for social protection programming and increased transparency regarding maize market activity. For the water market system, the report recommends increasing the water supply, improving household-level water storage, improving household purchasing power, creating more CBOs, pressuring NWSC to enforce its rules and regulations, offering cash grants and vouchers, water tankering, providing water treatment options and constructing pipelines from boreholes to water vendors. For the credit market system, this assessment recommends advocating for safety nets and ID registration for poor households, linking with institutions that could provide grants for the poor, promoting savings groups and providing cash grants to poor households and small traders.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Wajir County
August, 2011

The Horn of Africa is experiencing the most severe food crisis in the world today following two consecutive seasons of significantly below-average rainfall. Crops have failed, substantial livestock mortality has occurred and local cereal prices are extremely high. In Kenya's northern and north-eastern districts, there are currently 2.4 million people needing food assistance, and this number is expected to increase. Mercy Corps conducted this EMMA assessment in August 2011 on three market systems that are critical to food security in Wajir - rice, maize and beans. For the immediate response, this report recommends vouchers and cash transfers for households to increase their access to food. Increased purchasing power will allow households to access food, repay debts and rebuild local credit systems, and vouchers for households and traders can improve dietary diversity by increasing supplies of milk, fruits, and vegetables. For mid-term interventions, this report recommends rebuilding productive assets in order to strengthen and diversify local livelihoods.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Wajir County
September, 2012

Drought cycles in the Horn of Africa are now progressively shorter, with droughts occurring every 5 years or less. In a context where 80% of the population are poor or very poor, and have experienced both high food prices and restrictions on traditional livelihood strategies, the frequency of these droughts has seriously undermined the ability of the local population to recover from these shocks. This EMMA assessment aimed to shed light on the water market system in Wajir County. While water is available to meet the needs of the target population, during dry times, access to water is sometimes limited by a lack of permanent water sources and by their lack of purchasing power. This report makes the following recommendations for market-based programming: supporting water access through water vouchers in villages with no borehole and through water vouchers for free water provision directly at boreholes where they exist; integrating cash for water into food security-focused cash transfer programs; improving the capacity of water points; and supporting the operation and maintenance of boreholes. The report recommends a number of complementary activities to improve the market environment, infrastructure and services.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Le Thuy District, Quang Bình province
December, 2010

Torrential rains from September 30th to October 7th, 2010 caused record high flooding in a number of provinces in central Vietnam, with Quang Bình province the most affected. This EMMA report summarizes the impact of the 2010 floods on the pig and chicken market systems and on small-scale farmers (especially women) involved in pig or chicken raising. It recommends: 1. Providing piglets and chickens to (female) farmers in phases, including vaccination services; 2. Providing cash grants to (female) farmers; 3. Providing cash vouchers to affected (female) farmers for investing in piglets and/or chicken; 4. Offering micro-credit or loans to medium-scale farmers.

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Not specified
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Typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Yolanda) damaged 61,741 houses were damaged in the Philippines' Eastern Samar province alone when it struck in November 2013. This power point presentation provides an overview of an EMMA exercise that was conducted to examine whether the local market could meet the need for corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheets for roofing for the affected population in Eastern Samar after the crisis. This assessment suggests increasing the purchasing power of households through a combination of commodity vouchers and cash grants, rapidly conducting further research into the impact of the typhoon and the subsequent humanitarian response to date on the transportation market, and advocating with government and international relief organizations to facilitate the recovery of normal commercial activities along key shipping routes.

Report authors: 
Nupur Kukrety
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