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Agricultural inputs (seeds, tools and fertilizer)

Punjab, KPK and Sindh Provinces
September, 2010

Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people, destroying field crops and killing large numbers of livestock. In addition, the floods led to acute shortages of feed for the animals that survived, putting an estimated 800,000 animals at risk in the coming winter. This report summarizes the baseline and post-flood situation of the wheat seed market system in Punjab and KPK Provinces and the wheat flour market system in Sindh. Cash transfer programs (grants, cash for work and vouchers), direct distribution of wheat seeds and wheat flour in very specific areas, and food security interventions such as diversification of crop production and strengthening of alternative income sources are some of the study's basic recommendations, along with further food security assessments and coordination and advocacy work.

Report authors: 
Not specified
Download Report (1.56 MB pdf)

Abyei is a relatively small and disputed area of land on the border of North and South Sudan that in recent years has experienced much turmoil. In May 2011, following violent skirmishes, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) sent troops into Abyei seeking to push out the Southern forces.Compounding the pressure and instability caused by the numbers of both the returnees and the IDPs, the North blocked important trade routes to the South in the midst of the traditional lean season. The combination of these factors had a significant impact on food security in both the short and medium terms. This EMMA was conducted jointly by Mercy Corps and the Norwegian Refugee Council in June 2011 and focused on analyzing the impact of the conflict and the road closure on the maloda (traditional hoe) and okra seed market systems in northern parts of South Sudan. This EMMA report suggests that in-kind seed distributions often undermine markets in the region and inhibit the development of market linkages. It recommends that NGOs stop working as "market actors" and promotes market responses that encourage the market to function better on its own. It also suggests that longer term programs should focus on promoting new and more effective agricultural practices.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Emily Henderson, Phillippa Young
Download Report (911.3 KB pdf)

Maban County, Upper Nile State
February, 2013

In 2012, violence in the Sudanese border regions of South Kordofan and Blue Nile States generated huge influxes of people crossing the border from Sudan to seek refuge and assistance in South Sudan. Over half of the refugees settled in Maban County, and by early 2013, refugees represented more than half of the local population. Solidarités International commissioned a rapid market assessment using the EMMA methodology and two HEA livelihood baseline assessments in Maban County in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the livelihoods of refugees and host community members in the affected area and to ultimately enhance the design of Solidarités International and other aid agencies' food security and livelihoods interventions. It examined the sorghum, livestock and vegetable markets among the host and refugee communities. Overall, market systems in Maban County are dynamic and have responded effectively to increased demand, but local livelihoods are also constrained by limited cash income. Based on these findings, this assessment recommends a comprehensive package including cash transfers, seeds vouchers and dairy vouchers for the low-income refugee households, as well as a cash crop-focused strategy for middle-income host and refugee households that reevaluates the market systems for sorghum, maize, sesame, honey, and vegetables.

Report authors: 
Miles Murray
Download Report (2.34 MB pdf)

Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people and destroying field crops. This assessment aimed to assist agencies in identifying appropriate program interventions and focused on the wheat seed, fodder and casual agricultural labor market systems in Punjab Province. For wheat seeds, this report recommends cash transfers to restore agricultural infrastructure; vouchers to ensure quality and appropriate agricultural inputs; support to extension services; and advocacy for land rights. For the casual agricultural labor market, this report recommends unconditional cash transfers; cash for work; income support for people unable to participate in cash for work programs; and income generating activities and vocational training. For the fodder market system, this report recommends cash for work to restore agricultural infrastructure for enabling normal seasonal employment patterns; vouchers for agricultural inputs; and advocacy around land rights.

Report authors: 
Caroline Ward
Download Report (5.39 MB pdf)

Buthidaung Township, Rakhine State
October, 2013

The people of Rakhine State have suffered a long history of inter-communal conflict. Existing tensions between Buddhists and Muslims erupted into violent conflict in June and October 2012, resulting in massive population displacement and destruction of public and private properties, with many people injured or killed. The Consortium of Dutch NGOs led this EMMA study to investigate the potato and chemical fertilizer market systems. Among this report's most important recommendations are the distribution of vouchers for high energy food rations to vulnerable populations for households involved in casual labor and/or self employed; cash for work for populations that are involved in casual labor; cash grants for households to access vegetables and vegetable seeds; cash grants for households with access to land for purchase of production inputs; and model community savings and loan schemes or community micro-credit.

Report authors: 
Steven Lanjouw, U Khin Waung U
Download Report (1.77 MB pdf)

L'élection présidentielle contestée de novembre 2010 à plongé la Côte d'Ivoire dans la violence politique, avec des centaines de personnes tuées et 500.000 autres déplacés en interne. Ce rapport présente les résultats d'une étude EMMA sur les graines de riz. Il propose plusieurs recommandations, y compris des programmes Cash for Work (CFW) pour la plupart des ménages vulnérables dans les zones de conflit; de plaider auprès des autorités pour un environnement sécurisé; de sensibiliser la population pour la cohésion sociale; de diversifier les sources de revenus et de nourriture; le soutien des coopératives de semences de riz; de faciliter l'accès aux outils, aux apports et aux besoins alimentaires de base; et le renforcement de la capacité des groupes de producteurs de riz.

Report authors: 
not specified
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Sous-préfecture de Mbomou, zone de Bangassou
August, 2013

Depuis le début 2008, le sud de la République Centrafricaine (RCA) a fait l'objet d'attaques répétées des éléments de la Lord Resistance Army (LRA), faisant des milliers de victimes, enlevées, torturées et victimes de sévices sexuels et de violence. L'escalade des attaques de la LRA en 2013 a entraîné à nouveau de nombreux déplacements. En plus, l'occupation récente des villes dans le nord et le centre par l'alliance rebelle Séléka a coupé l'accès entre Bangui et la préfecture de Mbomou depuis début Décembre 2012. Mercy Corps a utilisé la méthodologie EMMA pour évaluer les opportunités et modalités de mise en oeuvre de ces programmes dans la sous-préfecture de Mbomou, dans la zone de Bangassou. L’étude recommande de mettre en place un système de coupons outils plutôt que coupons valeurs et d'établir un système de coupons outils distinct pour les forgerons et pour les commerçants. En parallèle, l'étude recommande le renforcement des capacités pour la production des outils agricoles, l'appui à l’accès à des matières premières de bonne qualité et l'appui à la production agricole.

Report authors: 
not specified
Download Report (1.71 MB pdf)