In 2012, violence in the Sudanese border regions of South Kordofan and Blue Nile States generated huge influxes of people crossing the border from Sudan to seek refuge and assistance in South Sudan. Over half of the refugees settled in Maban County, and by early 2013, refugees represented more than half of the local population. Solidarités International commissioned a rapid market assessment using the EMMA methodology and two HEA livelihood baseline assessments in Maban County in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the livelihoods of refugees and host community members in the affected area and to ultimately enhance the design of Solidarités International and other aid agencies' food security and livelihoods interventions. It examined the sorghum, livestock and vegetable markets among the host and refugee communities. Overall, market systems in Maban County are dynamic and have responded effectively to increased demand, but local livelihoods are also constrained by limited cash income. Based on these findings, this assessment recommends a comprehensive package including cash transfers, seeds vouchers and dairy vouchers for the low-income refugee households, as well as a cash crop-focused strategy for middle-income host and refugee households that reevaluates the market systems for sorghum, maize, sesame, honey, and vegetables.