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Meat/dairy, livestock (including inputs)

Jamshoro, Umerkot and Tharparkar districts of Sindh Province
December, 2016

The Pre-Crisis Market Analysis (PCMA) was conducted in the Jamshoro, Umerkot, and Tharparkar districts of Sindh, Pakistan in late 2016. The three districts studied contain different livelihoods zones and bear different levels of risk for chronic drought and sudden-onset emergency, affecting the markets for goats, fodder, and water. While the study looked at the goat and wheat flour market systems, this report focuses on the goat market only. While the goat market functions well in normal times, it has been severely disrupted by the drought conditions of the past few years. The report concludes that longer-term programming is required to increase resilience, but also makes recommendations for shorter-term efforts around targeting, sensitization and pursuing low-tech solutions to strengthening pastoralist resilience.

Report authors: 
not specified
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This report presents learning from the first pilot study that used the EMMA toolkit to assess an emergency market system. It analyzes how the toolkit was used, what did and did not work well, the training given to participants, the exercise's organization and recommendations for adapting the toolkit for future use. Participants felt that EMMA is an appropriate tool if used not too long after a crisis and that it highlights issues relating to market analysis that are not always well understood by emergency aid workers. However, team members also said that they did not have enough time to understand the toolkit before going into the field and suggested allowing more time for training, analysis and reflection during future assessments.

Report authors: 
Anita Yeomans
Download Report (226.3 KB pdf)

Abiemnhom County, Unity State
January, 2015

In December 2013, the political fall-out between the president of South Sudan and his former vice president led to a gradual escalation of violence with wide ranging implications: the displacement of populations and their livestock, the disruption of agricultural production and the obstruction of trade routes and markets. These problems were further compounded by the severe impacts of a ban on trade between South Sudan and Sudan and by the seasonal flooding that occurred in 2014. This EMMA study examined the sorghum and livestock off-take market systems in Abiemnhom County, Unity State, approximately a year after the start of the conflict. It finds that the sorghum, cattle and shoats market system were functional, although there were significant disruptions, inefficiencies and bottlenecks. Short-term recommendations include supporting household purchasing power through food vouchers and unconditional cash transfers, as well as targeted support to businesses to reduce the risk of inflation.

Report authors: 
Mohamed M. Yussuf, Mohamed Ali
Download Report (2.05 MB pdf)

Maban County, Upper Nile State
February, 2013

In 2012, violence in the Sudanese border regions of South Kordofan and Blue Nile States generated huge influxes of people crossing the border from Sudan to seek refuge and assistance in South Sudan. Over half of the refugees settled in Maban County, and by early 2013, refugees represented more than half of the local population. Solidarités International commissioned a rapid market assessment using the EMMA methodology and two HEA livelihood baseline assessments in Maban County in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the livelihoods of refugees and host community members in the affected area and to ultimately enhance the design of Solidarités International and other aid agencies' food security and livelihoods interventions. It examined the sorghum, livestock and vegetable markets among the host and refugee communities. Overall, market systems in Maban County are dynamic and have responded effectively to increased demand, but local livelihoods are also constrained by limited cash income. Based on these findings, this assessment recommends a comprehensive package including cash transfers, seeds vouchers and dairy vouchers for the low-income refugee households, as well as a cash crop-focused strategy for middle-income host and refugee households that reevaluates the market systems for sorghum, maize, sesame, honey, and vegetables.

Report authors: 
Miles Murray
Download Report (2.34 MB pdf)

Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents results and recommendations from an EMMA that focused on the availability of cross-breed milking cows to meet the demand for farmers seeking to both replace their cattle lost during the end of the war and to expand livelihood options through milk production. It concludes that the milking cow system in Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu is functioning, but at a very low capacity relative to the demand, with few prospects to increase capacity in the near-term without outside assistance. Thus, it recommends advocating for fewer restrictions on cattle transportation, as well as providing support mechanisms to dairy farmers such as cash grants, Dairy Village programs and improvement of breeding practices. Importing milking cows from India and Pakistan is also suggested to quickly address the need for milk products in Sri Lanka.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Tharmaratnam Parthipan, Nadarasa Pusharaj, Nishanty Sivakumaran, Ajith Weerasinghe
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Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people and destroying field crops. This assessment aimed to assist agencies in identifying appropriate program interventions and focused on the wheat seed, fodder and casual agricultural labor market systems in Punjab Province. For wheat seeds, this report recommends cash transfers to restore agricultural infrastructure; vouchers to ensure quality and appropriate agricultural inputs; support to extension services; and advocacy for land rights. For the casual agricultural labor market, this report recommends unconditional cash transfers; cash for work; income support for people unable to participate in cash for work programs; and income generating activities and vocational training. For the fodder market system, this report recommends cash for work to restore agricultural infrastructure for enabling normal seasonal employment patterns; vouchers for agricultural inputs; and advocacy around land rights.

Report authors: 
Caroline Ward
Download Report (5.39 MB pdf)

Since the attacks of 2009 until 2012, unemployment in the Gaza Strip remains very high, and average wage levels remain low. Vulnerable households with low incomes and limited or no employment will continue to require support to meet their basic food and non-food needs. The study used a livelihoods perspective and looked at the broiler chicken market as an income market. It also looked at the impacts of the previous two wars to analyse what the impacts of a future similar crisis could be. In this sense, this study was really more of an early PCMMA than an EMMA. This report recommends supporting existing small-scale broiler producers; providing inputs to small-scale producers who experienced losses as a result of wars and who have the potential for sustainability to restart their production; the facilitation of follow-up trainings in poultry production management; advocacy with the Ministry of Agriculture to improve/provide positive support and registration for small-scale producers; advocacy to relevant ministries to provide compensation for losses resulting from conflicts and/or epidemics; facilitating access to credit providers for small-scale producers to prevent them remaining dependent on middlemen for financial services; and conducting further analysis on the chicken feed, gas and credit markets.

Report authors: 
Emmeline Saint
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Département de Balleyara
August, 2015

Dans l’ouest du Niger, les inondations peuvent détruire des vies humaines, des habitats, des cultures et des infrastructures de base. À long terme, ces dégâts humains, économiques et matériels freinent le développement socio-économique du pays. En 2012 et 2014, la région considérée a subi des inondations particulièrement importantes. Cette étude PCMMA a été réalisée pour recommander les réponses pouvant influencer le marché les plus appropriées pour faire face aux fortes inondations et pour identifier des options de programmes pour renforcer les marchés et réduire les contraintes de l’accès aux produits ou de leur disponibilité (caprins), ou encore l’accès à un revenu essentiel (chou) pendant les fortes inondations. Les recommandations principales relatives au système de marché du chou sont l’appui à la structuration des producteurs maraîchers et l’organisation de la filière ainsi que la formation et l’encadrement technique des producteurs maraîchers. Pour le système de marché de caprins, ce rapport recommande la distribution des caprins en nature dans le cadre d’un programme de développement, la sensibilisation des communautés aux techniques de préparation pour les inondations, un programme Argent contre travail et un plaidoyer visant à réhabiliter certaines infrastructures essentielles, des transferts d’argent aux ménages affectés par les inondations et la réalisation d’une étude de moyens d’existence à Balleyara axée sur le genre.

Report authors: 
Emily Sloane, Virginia Careri, Julie Mayans, Jackie MacLeod et Kassoum Ouattara
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Of the four major provinces affected by the monsoon floods in 2010, Sindh was the worst in numbers of people impacted and displaced. Over 30% of the more than 7.2 million flood-affected people in Sindh have been temporarily displaced, and planting for next year’s wheat crop is likely to be delayed. This report summarizes the findings of an inter-agency assessment team that looked at the impact of the devastating monsoon floods of 2010 on market systems in Sindh, Pakistan. Wheat flour, livestock fodder, agricultural labor, and bamboo/timber poles markets were selected for the assessment. The overall objective of the response options for the agricultural commodities is to restore the income of small farmers and agricultural laborers and strengthen their role in agricultural production and recovery. For the shelter materials, the objective is to support the repair and/or replacement of flood-damaged houses through local market systems, by promoting disaster-resistant construction technologies.

Report authors: 
Rick Bauer
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Les régions du Kanem et du Bahr el Gazal
January, 2012

Les régions du Kanem et du Bahr el Gazal ont une production agricole déficitaire chronique à cause de la sécheresse cyclique, de la variabilité spatio-temporelle de la répartition des pluies, de la désertification et de l'érosion. Les rendements prévisionnels de la campagne agricole actuelle sur l’ensemble du territoire du Tchad pour la plupart des cultures vivrières sont inférieurs de 8% par rapport à la moyenne quinquennale. Selon l’enquête du PAM réalisée en mars-avril 2011, 46,3% de la population du Kanem et 40,5% de la population du Bahr El Gazal sont en insécurité alimentaire sévère. Oxfam et ACF ont décidé de réaliser une étude EMMA du marché du tourteau d'arachide (une sorte d'aliment pour le bétail), afin de définir les types de réponses et les modalités les plus appropriées pour répondre aux besoins humanitaires. Le rapport suggère deux études, une sur l’alimentation animale et une sur l’huile d’arachide, suivi par de l'appui à la filière du tourteau d’arachide à travers l’accès au crédit des grossistes et des transformateurs d’arachide. En période d’urgence, le rapport propose des distributions ou ventes subventionnées de tourteau d’arachide et du conseil des agropasteurs et éleveurs sur l’utilisation du tourteau d’arachide. A plus long terme, le rapport suggère l’appui technique sur l’utilisation du tourteau d’arachide.

Report authors: 
Anne-Solenne Le Danvic
Download Report (560.13 KB pdf)