This assessment analyzes the stresses placed on the crucial market systems of wheat flour and tomatoes in eastern Libya, following the rise of civil conflict in mid-February 2011. The physical infrastructure and human capital that supports and operates the wheat market system remains entirely functional, while the tomato market system has been affected significantly. Many conflict‐related problems in the tomato market system lend themselves to interventions with which international organizations are familiar: provision of input vouchers, cash for work, crop insurance and debt relief. However, wheat flour has a much greater bearing on food security in eastern Libya than tomatoes. The inability to import wheat is the defining problem affecting the market system, but is caused by political and legal issues beyond the traditional purview of most humanitarian organizations.