Drought cycles in the Horn of Africa are now progressively shorter, with droughts occurring every 5 years or less. In a context where 80% of the population are poor or very poor, and have experienced both high food prices and restrictions on traditional livelihood strategies, the frequency of these droughts has seriously undermined the ability of the local population to recover from these shocks. This EMMA assessment aimed to shed light on the water market system in Wajir County. While water is available to meet the needs of the target population, during dry times, access to water is sometimes limited by a lack of permanent water sources and by their lack of purchasing power. This report makes the following recommendations for market-based programming: supporting water access through water vouchers in villages with no borehole and through water vouchers for free water provision directly at boreholes where they exist; integrating cash for water into food security-focused cash transfer programs; improving the capacity of water points; and supporting the operation and maintenance of boreholes. The report recommends a number of complementary activities to improve the market environment, infrastructure and services.