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Influxes of internally displaced people of varying scales take place multiple times per year in Mogadishu and are caused by not only evictions but also drought, floods and violent conflict. The forced evictions that were the focus of this assessment took place in March 2015, when an estimated 3,500 households (21,000 individuals) were forcibly evicted from Maslah, Sarkus and Aslubta of Dharkenley District in Mogadishu. The majority of the evictees fled to the Weydow, Jamacada Shabelle and Tabella areas. Affected households lost the access to shelter and services and faced challenges in terms of security, WaSH issues like access to latrines, waste disposal services and water, as well as access to employment opportunities.
Carried out in December 2015, this assessment represented the last of three IRC-led pilot assessments intended to test out and generate learning about the PCMMA approach. During scoping consultations, it was agreed that a PCMMA assessment in Mogadishu was relevant, both to build capacity of national staff in market assessments and to assess the potential to deliver key WaSH and Shelter assistance through local markets. The study focused on NFIs that are typically distributed in-kind in Mogadishu following evictions, including jerry cans, aqua tabs, CGI shelter doors and plastic sheeting. The March 2015 evictions were chosen as the reference crisis because they are representative of the types of mid-size displacements that occur frequently in Mogadishu, prompting humanitarian action.
In non-emergency times, all of the commodities assessed are imported from Dubai, with the exception of jerry cans, for which a second-hand market exists, sourced from empty vegetable oil containers.There is little to no demand for aqua tabs among the local population. In most cases the commodities are sold to end users through wholesalers and retailers in the different districts in Mogadishu. Some of the wholesalers in these district-based markets have outlets within or near the IDP camps. Some IDPs also operate retail shops inside or outside the camps, though their capacity is very low. Overall, commerce in Mogadishu is highly developed, and markets can readily supply whatever is demanded.
Following the March 2015 evictions, humanitarian assistance played an important role in all of the market systems. NGOs distributed WaSH and shelter items, some of which were either returned to the market by households who needed other essential commodities or by gatekeepers who were diverting humanitarian aid. Traders were able to continue their business as usual during the forced evictions, though the small-scale traders that had operated within Maslah and Aslubta had their supply lines and customer base disrupted, as they were displaced along with their communities. Most IDP households lacked the purchasing power to buy the essential WaSH and shelter commodities following the evictions.
Along with several recommendations for indirect support through markets, this report recommends the local procurement and in-kind distribution of aqua tabs coupled with hygiene promotion and advocacy and support to key stakeholders for the improvement of water quality; unconditional, restricted value vouchers to IDPs to purchase any of a variety of specified WaSH and shelter items, including 20-liter jerry cans and high quality plastic sheeting along with other items, such as buckets, cooking sets and other shelter material; and the continued local procurement and delivery of CGI doors, ideally in partnership with a range of small businesses and vocational training programs in order to spread the economic benefit of this assistance more widely.