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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 21 - 30 of 115

WaSH and Shelter Market Systems in the case of IDP evictions, Mogadishu
January, 2016

In March 2015, an estimated 3,500 households (21,000 individuals) were forcibly evicted from Dharkenley District, affecting their access to employment opportunities, shelter and WaSH services and creating challenges in terms of security. This PCMMA was intended to build capacity of national staff in market assessments and to assess the potential to deliver key WaSH and Shelter assistance through local markets following mid-size IDP evictions. Along with several recommendations for indirect support through markets, this report recommends the local procurement and in-kind distribution of aqua tabs; unconditional, restricted value vouchers to IDPs to purchase any of a variety of specified WaSH and shelter items; and the continued local procurement and delivery of CGI doors, ideally in partnership with a range of small businesses and vocational training programs in order to spread the economic benefit of this assistance more widely.

Report authors: 
Mohamed Yussuf, Emily Sloane
Download Report (1.46 MB pdf)

Korail neighborhood of Dhaka and rural Sirajganj Area
December, 2015

Floods recur on a regular basis in Bangladesh. In urban Korail, floods lead to an increased risk of disease, while in the rural area of Sirajganj, floods threaten poor households' key livelihoods activities, though the main 'disaster' is a chronic lack of labor opportunities during the lean season. The analysis team followed the PCMMA guidance to apply an approach similar to that of the EMMA Toolkit in a pre-crisis context. The team examined how the floods in the context of the lean season and rainy season impact the function of one critical market system in each area (potable water in Korail and agricultural labor in Sirajganj), in order to draw conclusions about the likely impact of future floods and seasonal rains on selected market systems, and to propose appropriate market-based preparedness and response interventions. For the water market system, this report recommends unconditional cash distribution to help people meet their drinking water needs, the installation of mobile water treatment plants and the distribution of locally procured water. For the agricultural labor market system, the report recommends livelihoods diversification and strengthening activities, unconditional cash programs for basic needs during emergency and early recovery periods, conditional cash to enable small-scale farmers to hire agri-laborers, cash for work for DRR-related projects at the community level, vouchers for flood-resistant paddy varieties and the creation or support of agricultural associations and cooperatives.

Report authors: 
Benjamin Barrows, Inés Dalmau i Gutsens
Download Report (9.92 MB pdf)

Every year, Eastern Samar is hit by an average of 20 typhoons. Because of the impacts of these typhoons, chronic WASH issues and high poverty incidence, people remain vulnerable. Oxfam conducted this PCMMA on household water treatment products (HWTP) and financial services for the poor (with a focus on loan and credit services) in order to inform the development of livelihoods and WASH programmes ahead of the next typhoon season. For the HWTP market system, the report recommends collaboration with RHU on pre-stocking of HWTPs ahead of the typhoon season, awareness raising sessions on the availability and use of HWTPs, infrastructure support, rehabilitation of damaged water systems, supporting local traders and pharmacies to stock HWTPs in advance and mapping of actors willing to participate in a voucher scheme for HWTPs. In a future emergency, the report recommends a vouchers-for-HWTPs intervention. For financial services, the report recommends helping sari-sari store owners to become more resilient to shocks through better preparedness, advocacy for reduced interest rates, financial literacy training, awareness raising on the different financial services available and additional mapping of services. In a future typhoon, the report recommends supporting shopkeepers or their suppliers through cash or vouchers and supporting informal money lenders to continue offering their services to the poor and very poor.

Report authors: 
Marie Boulinaud
Download Report (1.22 MB pdf)

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Badin, Ghotki and Sanghar Districts, Sindh Province
August, 2015

2010 and 2011 saw the worst floods in the history of Pakistan. In Sindh Province, the floods led to loss of life and also damaged standing crops, household and livestock food stocks, health, education and road infrastructure, houses, irrigation and drainage facilities and protected drinking water sources. This report presents the findings and recommendations for a PCMMA of the wheat straw critical market system in Badin, Ghotki and Sanghar Districts of Sindh. The study found that the wheat straw market system by and large has the capacity to meet the anticipated demand for straw during future floods. For the first month, it is recommended to implement in-kind distribution of fodder assistance to the affected population in Sanghar and Badin, and cash or vouchers to the affected population in Ghotki to enable them to purchase wheat straw directly. 3 to 5 months following the emergency, cash or vouchers can be phased-in to replace in-kind straw distributions. In addition, this study recommends considering the in-kind distribution of supplemental nutrition for livestock and assistance for green fodder crops, along with the following preparedness activities: improving straw storage mechanisms and practices at the household and retailer levels; planning for post-flood green fodder planting; and establishing supplier agreements with straw traders.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews and Muzafar Hussain
Download Report (1.5 MB pdf)

Ghotki and Sanghar Districts, Sindh Province
August, 2015

2010 and 2011 saw the worst floods in the history of Pakistan. In Sindh Province, the floods led to loss of life and also damaged standing crops, household and livestock food stocks, health, education and road infrastructure, houses, irrigation and drainage facilities and protected drinking water sources. This report presents the findings and recommendations for a PCMMA of the wheat flour critical market system in Ghotki and Sanghar Districts of Sindh. In the event of a future large-scale flood, this study predicts that wheat flour within the districts are likely to be adequate to meet local demand for several months, provided that the very serious transportation and access issues can be overcome. For a future humanitarian response, this report recommends in-kind provision of locally procured wheat flour to the most vulnerable households to be replaced by unconditional cash grants. It also recommends several activities focused on emergency preparedness, including a mapping and communication exercise; the development and implementation of longer-term agricultural development/poverty eradication programs; advocacy at the national-level food security cluster for consistent provision of the complete caloric requirements for the poorest households in emergencies; and support to actors throughout the market chain to flood-proof storage facilities.

Report authors: 
Emily Sloane and Khanzada Khan
Download Report (1.14 MB pdf)

Département de Balleyara
August, 2015

Dans l’ouest du Niger, les inondations peuvent détruire des vies humaines, des habitats, des cultures et des infrastructures de base. À long terme, ces dégâts humains, économiques et matériels freinent le développement socio-économique du pays. En 2012 et 2014, la région considérée a subi des inondations particulièrement importantes. Cette étude PCMMA a été réalisée pour recommander les réponses pouvant influencer le marché les plus appropriées pour faire face aux fortes inondations et pour identifier des options de programmes pour renforcer les marchés et réduire les contraintes de l’accès aux produits ou de leur disponibilité (caprins), ou encore l’accès à un revenu essentiel (chou) pendant les fortes inondations. Les recommandations principales relatives au système de marché du chou sont l’appui à la structuration des producteurs maraîchers et l’organisation de la filière ainsi que la formation et l’encadrement technique des producteurs maraîchers. Pour le système de marché de caprins, ce rapport recommande la distribution des caprins en nature dans le cadre d’un programme de développement, la sensibilisation des communautés aux techniques de préparation pour les inondations, un programme Argent contre travail et un plaidoyer visant à réhabiliter certaines infrastructures essentielles, des transferts d’argent aux ménages affectés par les inondations et la réalisation d’une étude de moyens d’existence à Balleyara axée sur le genre.

Report authors: 
Emily Sloane, Virginia Careri, Julie Mayans, Jackie MacLeod et Kassoum Ouattara
Download Report (1.93 MB pdf)

Badin, Ghotki and Sanghar Districts, Sindh Province
August, 2015

2010 and 2011 saw the worst floods in the history of Pakistan. In Sindh Province, the floods led to loss of life and also damaged standing crops, household and livestock food stocks, health, education and road infrastructure, houses, irrigation and drainage facilities and protected drinking water sources. This report presents the findings and recommendations for a PCMMA of the drinking water market system in Badin, Ghotki and Sanghar Districts of Sindh. It finds that markets are limited in their ability to provide adequate drinking water to make up for the 50% loss of clean water provided by wells and hand pumps during floods. This report recommends the provision of bottled water for the first month for urban and peri-urban areas, to be replaced by the provision of water vouchers for bottled/filtered water. In rural areas, it is appropriate to distribute filtered/treated drinking water by jerry can or by water tankering. In addition, the following preparedness/DRR activities are recommended: installation of hand pumps in areas where displaced communities gather during floods; pre-positioning of water tankering equipment and pre-establishing agreements with district-level water treatment plants or suppliers to fill tankers; pre-positioning agreements with water treatment and bottled water retailers to accept vouchers for drinking water during floods; the cleaning, treatment and repair of wells and hand pumps in rural areas; promoting household-level water treatment strategies; and supporting the growth of private-sector water filtration businesses.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews and Juergen Mika
Download Report (1.64 MB pdf)

Badin District, Sindh Province
August, 2015

2010 and 2011 saw the worst floods in the history of Pakistan. In Sindh Province, the floods led to loss of life and also damaged standing crops, household and livestock food stocks, health, education and road infrastructure, houses, irrigation and drainage facilities and protected drinking water sources. This report presents the findings and recommendations for a PCMMA of the rice market system in Sindh's Badin District. During and after a future flood emergency, the rice market system in Badin should be able to provide the needed volume of rice, provided that the very serious transportation and access issues can be overcome. For a future humanitarian response, this report recommends in-kind provision of locally procured rice to the most vulnerable households for the first month of intense flooding, to be replaced by unconditional cash grants to cover rice needs, along with support to selected retailers to transport rice efficiently. It also recommends several activities focused on emergency preparedness, including a mapping and communication exercise focused on identifying key transport routes and land areas that are vulnerable to flooding; the development and implementation of longer-term agricultural development/poverty eradication programst; and advocacy at the national-level food security cluster for consistent provision of the complete caloric requirements for the poorest households in emergencies.

Report authors: 
Emily Sloane and Muhammad Ali
Download Report (1.21 MB pdf)

Leer County, Unity State
January, 2015

In December 2013, conflict along tribal lines started in Juba, the capital of South Sudan and soon spread to six of the country's ten states. Unity State's Leer County was badly affected by active conflict at the beginning of 2014. In Leer, the county's capitol, large traders have fled, and the main trade routes are blocked by active conflict and localized flooding. This report presents the results of an EMMA that Mercy Corps conducted in Leer County on the livestock, sorghum and sheep and goat markets, which traditionally provide a means of survival for vulnerable households. It proposes a number of response options designed to support the food security of households in Leer County. Depending on how the conflict evolves over the next few months, it recommends one or more of the following options: direct support to conflict-affected households to access key food items and assets and to diversify income sources; support to a variety of market actors to restore market function and possibly strengthen market systems, including support services; and support to farmers to increase agricultural production.

Report authors: 
Mohamed Ali, Carol Ward
Download Report (2.4 MB pdf)

Axe Bertoua-Garoua Boulai, Frontière RCA
January, 2015

Depuis décembre 2013 la crise en Centrafrique a provoqué la fuite en masse de civils au Cameroun et aux autre pays. SI a lancé cette étude de marché sur trois systèmes de marchés critiques (le riz importé, la farine de manioc et l’eau) pour mieux appréhender le contexte en matière de sécurité alimentaire et moyens d’existence. Ce rapport propose le plaidoyer pour que les rations alimentaires soit à minima achetée en local; une pilote pour une ration distribuée à travers une combinaison de modalités; une étude EMMA sur les systèmes de marché du lait et de la viande; la distribution en nature d’intrants; la vulgarisation agricole; la vulgarisation de techniques de séchage et de nettoyage; la motorisation de certains points d’eau; une étude hydrogéologique pour la zone Bertoua-GB; l'appui aux détaillants en eau; des vouchers eau pour les réfugiés; et la distribution de bidon de stockage en nature.

Report authors: 
Hélène Juillard
Download Report (1.85 MB pdf)

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