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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 61 - 70 of 115

Upper Nile, Warrap and Western Bahr el Ghazal
February, 2013

South Sudan faces chronic food insecurity. This study of markets in three South Sudanese states looks at the appropriateness of cash transfer programming in food security responses and assesses whether markets could respond adequately to increased demand without causing inflation. During the emergency year, vulnerable households in all three states faced a severe deficit in their ability to purchase basic foods due to severely reduced yields and decreased income levels. The sorghum market saw higher prices, lower demand and high inflation. The report suggests that supporting purchasing power alone will not be sufficient to meet people’s needs because of the risk of inflation. Therefore, this assessment suggests activities designed to improve the functioning of the market in addition to improving consumers' purchasing power. Contingency funds and other flexible funding are recommended to limit risks associated with this volatile environment. It is also advised that short-term programs need to be coherent with longer-term ones that focus on addressing the chronic issues that inhibit resilience building.

Report authors: 
Davina Jeffery
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Maban County, Upper Nile State
February, 2013

In 2012, violence in the Sudanese border regions of South Kordofan and Blue Nile States generated huge influxes of people crossing the border from Sudan to seek refuge and assistance in South Sudan. Over half of the refugees settled in Maban County, and by early 2013, refugees represented more than half of the local population. Solidarités International commissioned a rapid market assessment using the EMMA methodology and two HEA livelihood baseline assessments in Maban County in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of the livelihoods of refugees and host community members in the affected area and to ultimately enhance the design of Solidarités International and other aid agencies' food security and livelihoods interventions. It examined the sorghum, livestock and vegetable markets among the host and refugee communities. Overall, market systems in Maban County are dynamic and have responded effectively to increased demand, but local livelihoods are also constrained by limited cash income. Based on these findings, this assessment recommends a comprehensive package including cash transfers, seeds vouchers and dairy vouchers for the low-income refugee households, as well as a cash crop-focused strategy for middle-income host and refugee households that reevaluates the market systems for sorghum, maize, sesame, honey, and vegetables.

Report authors: 
Miles Murray
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Depuis plus de 20 ans, la RDC est connue pour être un pays en proie à de violentes épidémies de choléra surtout à l’Est. Uvira est devenue un des foyers propice de contamination. Dans le cadre de lutte contre le choléra, Oxfam a souhaité faire un EMMA avec les objectifs de renforcer l’analyse de la situation concernant la problématique du choléra et les liens avec les marchés critiques choisis, guider les équipes dans les choix de réponse en période de référence et en période de crise et décider si les marchés critiques peuvent être soutenus dans les réponses. Parmi les nombreuses recommandations de ce rapport sont les suivantes: pour une réponse rapide, développer la mise en place de coupon valeur ou commodité pour les produits PUR et UZIMA; sur le plus long terme, développer une stratégie de communication, diffuser les informations en ce qui concerne la pratique et les produits et élaborer des stratégies de « marketing social »; définir et mettre en place une stratégie de sortie des points de chloration; améliorer la surveillance épidémiologique par UGB; et récolter les paramètres physico chimique de l’eau de surface sur les douze mois de l’année et étudier les variations quotidiennes ce qui pourrait aider en terme de choix techniques pour un meilleur traitement.

Report authors: 
not specified
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Wajir County
September, 2012

Drought cycles in the Horn of Africa are now progressively shorter, with droughts occurring every 5 years or less. In a context where 80% of the population are poor or very poor, and have experienced both high food prices and restrictions on traditional livelihood strategies, the frequency of these droughts has seriously undermined the ability of the local population to recover from these shocks. This EMMA assessment aimed to shed light on the water market system in Wajir County. While water is available to meet the needs of the target population, during dry times, access to water is sometimes limited by a lack of permanent water sources and by their lack of purchasing power. This report makes the following recommendations for market-based programming: supporting water access through water vouchers in villages with no borehole and through water vouchers for free water provision directly at boreholes where they exist; integrating cash for water into food security-focused cash transfer programs; improving the capacity of water points; and supporting the operation and maintenance of boreholes. The report recommends a number of complementary activities to improve the market environment, infrastructure and services.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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In recent years, the high frequency of severe droughts in the Horn of Africa has undermined the ability of households in the region to recover from these crises. This document summarizes the findings from an EMMA carried out on the water market system in Kenya's Wajir County from August-September 2012, before detailing the report's response recommendations. This report makes the following recommendations for market-based programming: supporting water access through water vouchers in villages with no borehole and through water vouchers for free water provision directly at boreholes where they exist; integrating cash for water into food security-focused cash transfer programs; improving the capacity of water points; and supporting the operation and maintenance of boreholes. The report recommends a number of complementary activities to improve the market environment, infrastructure and services.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Moyale Town
August, 2012

Households in Moyale town in Ethiopia, located on the border with Kenya, have witnessed an influx of Kenyan migrants fleeing inter-clan violence, which has led to shortages of water and other basic resources. Oxfam Great Britain carried out an EMMA study to assess the functionality of Moyale’s water market system. This report recommends the implementation of flexible market-integrated relief that permits households to access water via their choice of the following mechanisms: water vouchers for public and private water stands, water vouchers for donkey carts, segregated access vouchers and monthly cash distributions.

Report authors: 
Blessing Mutsaka, Oda Ginbe, Gezahegn Shewangizaw
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Paletwa Township, Chin State
June, 2012

Chin State on the western border of Myanmar is characterized by chronic underdevelopment and poverty. Although considered an EMMA at the time, the study aimed to map the baseline rice market system in Paletwa Township under normal conditions in order to gain insight into how to improve people's livelihoods and food security in times of stress. In this sense, it was really an early PCMMA. This assessment recommends that any development or relief programs targeting Paletwa Township should seek to engage market actors so as to avoid doing harm. In addition, livelihoods support in the target area should focus on developing more sustainable, diversified and profitable strategies that help to protect the natural environment.

Report authors: 
Alan Moseley, Carol Ward
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents the results and recommendations of an EMMA of the masonry labor market that seeks to understand how well the current masonry market is functioning relative to the demand for labor and whether there are opportunities to promote job creation in the sector. It concludes that the masonry market is functioning well; however, there is a scarcity of skilled masonry laborers in the region due to the extensive training period and lack of interest in the local community. This assessment concludes with two main recommendations, namely to support vocational training service providers to train unemployed youths in masonry, and to link these institutions with chief masons for advanced on-the-job training opportunities. Such recommendations will speed the engagement of local unemployed workers in the masonry sector and benefit those resettled families in need of homes and public buildings.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Gemuni Wijesena, S. Fawzardeen, T. Senthees, P. Perinpakumar
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents results and recommendations from an EMMA that focused on the availability of cross-breed milking cows to meet the demand for farmers seeking to both replace their cattle lost during the end of the war and to expand livelihood options through milk production. It concludes that the milking cow system in Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu is functioning, but at a very low capacity relative to the demand, with few prospects to increase capacity in the near-term without outside assistance. Thus, it recommends advocating for fewer restrictions on cattle transportation, as well as providing support mechanisms to dairy farmers such as cash grants, Dairy Village programs and improvement of breeding practices. Importing milking cows from India and Pakistan is also suggested to quickly address the need for milk products in Sri Lanka.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Tharmaratnam Parthipan, Nadarasa Pusharaj, Nishanty Sivakumaran, Ajith Weerasinghe
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents the results and recommendations of an EMMA of the red rice market system to better understand the availability of red rice in local markets and any constraints facing the market system. This analysis shows that the supply in these regions is sufficient to meet the need of the target population, but that consumers have limited access to this supply due to low purchasing power. Its recommendations include cash for work activities, indirect interventions, and advocacy to strengthen the red rice supply market system in the two districts.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Rajesh Dhungel, Sinnasamy Raguraamamurty, Karthika Tharmalingam, Paramanathapillai Seran
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