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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 81 - 90 of 115

La zone du Nord Guéra, au Tchad, est une des régions les plus touchées par l’insécurité alimentaire. La sécheresse de 2009 a provoqué une crise alimentaire en 2010, et les prévisions pour la période de soudure 2011 sont alarmantes. La limitation des prix imposée par le gouvernement fin 2010 a suscité un désintérêt des commerçants pour la filière céréalière, et un afflux de retournés, causé par la crise libyenne, a provoqué une pression supplémentaire sur leurs moyens d’existences et entraîné une baisse des transferts monétaires venant de ce pays voisin. Une étude EMMA est alors parue indispensable pour appréhender le fonctionnement du marché des céréales sèches et les effets cumulés des crises sur ce marché, afin d’apporter une intervention la plus pertinente possible pour répondre aux besoins dans le département de Mangalmé. Les principales recommandations d’intervention sont un renforcement de l’accompagnement technique de producteurs et une adaptation des techniques de production ; un soutien à la diversification des capacités de production des ménages vulnérables ; un renforcement des capacités de stockage ; et des interventions monétisées à destination des plus vulnérables pour la couverture des besoins alimentaires de base en période de soudure.

Report authors: 
Aimé Lukelo, Emmeline Saint
Download Report (1.48 MB pdf)

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This assessment analyzes the stresses placed on the crucial market systems of wheat flour and tomatoes in eastern Libya, following the rise of civil conflict in mid-February 2011. The physical infrastructure and human capital that supports and operates the wheat market system remains entirely functional, while the tomato market system has been affected significantly. Many conflict‐related problems in the tomato market system lend themselves to interventions with which international organizations are familiar: provision of input vouchers, cash for work, crop insurance and debt relief. However, wheat flour has a much greater bearing on food security in eastern Libya than tomatoes. The inability to import wheat is the defining problem affecting the market system, but is caused by political and legal issues beyond the traditional purview of most humanitarian organizations.

Report authors: 
Not specified
Download Report (555.31 KB pdf)

Moyen Cavally and 18 Montagnes regions
June, 2011

This EMMA study looked at the impact of the post-election violence of 2010-11 on the dried fish sector in western Cote d'Ivoire. The violence resulted in reduced numbers of market actors in the market system, interruptions in the supply chain due to insecurity, higher prices and the reduced purchasing power of vulnerable households. This report recommends unconditional cash transfer programs targeting vulnerable households, complemented by voucher programs for specific food items, along with various types of support to fish farmers and actions to promote social cohesion and the re-establishment of the rule of law.

Report authors: 
not specified
Download Report (939.3 KB pdf)

L'élection présidentielle contestée de novembre 2010 à plongé la Côte d'Ivoire dans la violence politique, avec des centaines de personnes tuées et 500.000 autres déplacés en interne. Ce rapport présente les résultats d'une étude EMMA sur les graines de riz. Il propose plusieurs recommandations, y compris des programmes Cash for Work (CFW) pour la plupart des ménages vulnérables dans les zones de conflit; de plaider auprès des autorités pour un environnement sécurisé; de sensibiliser la population pour la cohésion sociale; de diversifier les sources de revenus et de nourriture; le soutien des coopératives de semences de riz; de faciliter l'accès aux outils, aux apports et aux besoins alimentaires de base; et le renforcement de la capacité des groupes de producteurs de riz.

Report authors: 
not specified
Download Report (811.72 KB pdf)

Abyei is a relatively small and disputed area of land on the border of North and South Sudan that in recent years has experienced much turmoil. In May 2011, following violent skirmishes, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) sent troops into Abyei seeking to push out the Southern forces.Compounding the pressure and instability caused by the numbers of both the returnees and the IDPs, the North blocked important trade routes to the South in the midst of the traditional lean season. The combination of these factors had a significant impact on food security in both the short and medium terms. This EMMA was conducted jointly by Mercy Corps and the Norwegian Refugee Council in June 2011 and focused on analyzing the impact of the conflict and the road closure on the maloda (traditional hoe) and okra seed market systems in northern parts of South Sudan. This EMMA report suggests that in-kind seed distributions often undermine markets in the region and inhibit the development of market linkages. It recommends that NGOs stop working as "market actors" and promotes market responses that encourage the market to function better on its own. It also suggests that longer term programs should focus on promoting new and more effective agricultural practices.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Emily Henderson, Phillippa Young
Download Report (911.3 KB pdf)

Northern Province
April, 2011

Currently, northern Sri Lanka is recovering from two different crises: the decades-long civil war between the government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam that ended in May 2009, and recent flooding due to heavy rainfall in January and February 2011 in the north and east of the country. This report presents the results of a rapid analysis of the rice market system in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka that took place shortly after the floods. The rice market system is functional, although with significant inefficiencies and imbalance of market power that could be ameliorated with interventions. The long-term conflict caused underdevelopment of infrastructure and insufficient services in the region. While direct flood damage in the region was relatively minor, the indirect and ongoing losses caused by unexpected rainy weather are high. Short to medium-term recommendations include supporting storage and irrigation, diversifying production, improving market information and developing small enterprises with mills and equipment. Long-term development suggestions include supporting the growth of farmer organizations, constructing more sophisticated storage and financing options and the facilitation of higher-value rice production.

Report authors: 
Laura Meissner
Download Report (217.42 KB pdf)

Grand Gedeh County
April, 2011

Since early March 2011, at least 57,000 refugees fleeing fighting and instability in Côte d’Ivoire have been crossing the border into Liberia and have become concentrated along the border and the main road in Grand Gedeh County. In the affected villages, already-limited food and seed stocks are being depleted, meaning that without assistance many farmers will not be able to plant in time for the next harvest. Oxfam undertook a market assessment of the rice and agricultural labor markets to define the most appropriate response and modalities to address emergency needs. The report offers the following recommendations: for vulnerable small farmers,a combination of rice vouchers, a once-off cash grant and seeds and tools package for targeted households; for refugees, a combined approach of in-kind distribution and cash transfers to allow them to meet their basic needs and support their livelihoods through investing in small income generating activities; and for refugees who want or have already started to farm, an additional distribution of seeds and tools. In addition, assessments of the imported rice and agricultural labor markets should be replicated in other areas affected by the refugee influx; the imported rice and agricultural labor markets should be monitored in order to evaluate the impact of the humanitarian assistance and adapt the response accordingly; and market value chain assessments should be extended to other key commodities such as seeds, hygiene items and other food items.

Report authors: 
Nanthilde Kamara, Emily Henderson
Download Report (1.42 MB pdf)

Le Thuy District, Quang Bình province
December, 2010

Torrential rains from September 30th to October 7th, 2010 caused record high flooding in a number of provinces in central Vietnam, with Quang Bình province the most affected. This EMMA report summarizes the impact of the 2010 floods on the pig and chicken market systems and on small-scale farmers (especially women) involved in pig or chicken raising. It recommends: 1. Providing piglets and chickens to (female) farmers in phases, including vaccination services; 2. Providing cash grants to (female) farmers; 3. Providing cash vouchers to affected (female) farmers for investing in piglets and/or chicken; 4. Offering micro-credit or loans to medium-scale farmers.

Report authors: 
Not specified
Download Report (460.28 KB pdf)

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In August and September 2008, Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere was struck by three tropical storms. 86,000 people are now living in temporary shelters. Livelihoods and crops have been destroyed, and the entire road system has been severely damaged. This study was a pilot of the nascent EMMA approach with the dual purpose of better understanding critical market systems (beans and timber) for the population affected by the cyclones and gaining learning that could be used to improve the toolkit itself. The report recommends the direct purchase of timber from regional traders for delivery to beneficiary sites. It may be worth investigating a voucher-system instead of an in-kind distribution, which would need to be supported with trader transportation of timber directly to their households. Also recommended is additional research and cross-checking with the Shelter Cluster, government stakeholders and affected communities. Recommendations for the bean market system include cash-based interventions to increase the purchasing power of target beneficiaries; the provision of local and/or well-adapted bean seeds to farmers in time for agricultural production for the next season and supporting them with vegetable nurseries; the supply of credit to farmers to restore productive assets/infrastructure; the supply of credit to wholesalers whose stores were destroyed; market support activities to improve market system performance and monitoring and phase out of food aid activities.

Report authors: 
Anita Auerbach
Download Report (1.13 MB pdf)

Punjab, KPK and Sindh Provinces
September, 2010

Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people, destroying field crops and killing large numbers of livestock. In addition, the floods led to acute shortages of feed for the animals that survived, putting an estimated 800,000 animals at risk in the coming winter. This report summarizes the baseline and post-flood situation of the wheat seed market system in Punjab and KPK Provinces and the wheat flour market system in Sindh. Cash transfer programs (grants, cash for work and vouchers), direct distribution of wheat seeds and wheat flour in very specific areas, and food security interventions such as diversification of crop production and strengthening of alternative income sources are some of the study's basic recommendations, along with further food security assessments and coordination and advocacy work.

Report authors: 
Not specified
Download Report (1.56 MB pdf)

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