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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 91 - 100 of 118

Le Thuy District, Quang Bình province
December, 2010

Torrential rains from September 30th to October 7th, 2010 caused record high flooding in a number of provinces in central Vietnam, with Quang Bình province the most affected. This EMMA report summarizes the impact of the 2010 floods on the pig and chicken market systems and on small-scale farmers (especially women) involved in pig or chicken raising. It recommends: 1. Providing piglets and chickens to (female) farmers in phases, including vaccination services; 2. Providing cash grants to (female) farmers; 3. Providing cash vouchers to affected (female) farmers for investing in piglets and/or chicken; 4. Offering micro-credit or loans to medium-scale farmers.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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In August and September 2008, Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere was struck by three tropical storms. 86,000 people are now living in temporary shelters. Livelihoods and crops have been destroyed, and the entire road system has been severely damaged. This study was a pilot of the nascent EMMA approach with the dual purpose of better understanding critical market systems (beans and timber) for the population affected by the cyclones and gaining learning that could be used to improve the toolkit itself. The report recommends the direct purchase of timber from regional traders for delivery to beneficiary sites. It may be worth investigating a voucher-system instead of an in-kind distribution, which would need to be supported with trader transportation of timber directly to their households. Also recommended is additional research and cross-checking with the Shelter Cluster, government stakeholders and affected communities. Recommendations for the bean market system include cash-based interventions to increase the purchasing power of target beneficiaries; the provision of local and/or well-adapted bean seeds to farmers in time for agricultural production for the next season and supporting them with vegetable nurseries; the supply of credit to farmers to restore productive assets/infrastructure; the supply of credit to wholesalers whose stores were destroyed; market support activities to improve market system performance and monitoring and phase out of food aid activities.

Report authors: 
Anita Auerbach
Download Report (1.13 MB pdf)

Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people and destroying field crops. This assessment aimed to assist agencies in identifying appropriate program interventions and focused on the wheat seed, fodder and casual agricultural labor market systems in Punjab Province. For wheat seeds, this report recommends cash transfers to restore agricultural infrastructure; vouchers to ensure quality and appropriate agricultural inputs; support to extension services; and advocacy for land rights. For the casual agricultural labor market, this report recommends unconditional cash transfers; cash for work; income support for people unable to participate in cash for work programs; and income generating activities and vocational training. For the fodder market system, this report recommends cash for work to restore agricultural infrastructure for enabling normal seasonal employment patterns; vouchers for agricultural inputs; and advocacy around land rights.

Report authors: 
Caroline Ward
Download Report (5.39 MB pdf)

Punjab, KPK and Sindh Provinces
September, 2010

Heavy rainfall beginning in July 2010 caused flooding in most districts in Pakistan, affecting 20 million people, destroying field crops and killing large numbers of livestock. In addition, the floods led to acute shortages of feed for the animals that survived, putting an estimated 800,000 animals at risk in the coming winter. This report summarizes the baseline and post-flood situation of the wheat seed market system in Punjab and KPK Provinces and the wheat flour market system in Sindh. Cash transfer programs (grants, cash for work and vouchers), direct distribution of wheat seeds and wheat flour in very specific areas, and food security interventions such as diversification of crop production and strengthening of alternative income sources are some of the study's basic recommendations, along with further food security assessments and coordination and advocacy work.

Report authors: 
Not specified
Download Report (1.56 MB pdf)

Of the four major provinces affected by the monsoon floods in 2010, Sindh was the worst in numbers of people impacted and displaced. Over 30% of the more than 7.2 million flood-affected people in Sindh have been temporarily displaced, and planting for next year’s wheat crop is likely to be delayed. This report summarizes the findings of an inter-agency assessment team that looked at the impact of the devastating monsoon floods of 2010 on market systems in Sindh, Pakistan. Wheat flour, livestock fodder, agricultural labor, and bamboo/timber poles markets were selected for the assessment. The overall objective of the response options for the agricultural commodities is to restore the income of small farmers and agricultural laborers and strengthen their role in agricultural production and recovery. For the shelter materials, the objective is to support the repair and/or replacement of flood-damaged houses through local market systems, by promoting disaster-resistant construction technologies.

Report authors: 
Rick Bauer
Download Report (1.85 MB pdf)

Osh city, Aravan district and Jalal-Abad oblast
July, 2010

In June 2010, the Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan experienced ethnic violence and rapid displacement in the southern districts bordering Uzbekistan following the ousting of the country's president in April. This EMMA assessment focused on early recovery needs for four selected critical markets, including wheat flour, and the impact of humanitarian aid to date on the local market. Following the June crisis, the wheat flour market has suffered several broken linkages, price spikes, and shortages of stock that are concerning for the near future. This report recommends the following humanitarian responses: (1) cash distributions to the most affected farmers; (2) development of a public information system for crops and markets; (3) vouchers for bakers, retailers and/or vulnerable households; (4) cash for work for farmers to clear irrigation and other farm systems, and crews to clean up markets and businesses; and (5) advocacy for the Kyrgyz government to purchase a certain volume of wheat from farmers.

Report authors: 
Benjamin Barrows, Eugenia Gusev
Download Report (846.46 KB pdf)

Osh and Jalal-Abad oblasts
July, 2010

In June 2010, the Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan experienced ethnic violence and rapid displacement in the southern districts bordering Uzbekistan following the ousting of the country's president in April. This EMMA assessment focused on early recovery needs for four selected critical markets, including early potatoes, which represent an important source of food and income for farmers in low-lying areas of Osh and Jalal-Abad oblasts. The crisis in Kyrgyzstan has severely disrupted the early potato market system's functioning. This report recommends the following direct interventions: cash transfers to the most affected farmers, subsidized transportation linking farms and markets, vouchers for retailers to purchase from middlemen, cash for work for farmers to clear irrigation and other farm systems and crews to clean up markets and businesses. In addition, this report recommends the following indirect interventions: providing information about crops, prices, supply and demand, technical assistance, rehabilitation of irrigation systems and advocacy with the Kyrgyz, Kazak, Uzbek and Russian governments to reopen borders for trade.

Report authors: 
Benjamin Barrows, Eugenia Gusev
Download Report (362.3 KB pdf)

In June 2010, the Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan experienced ethnic violence and rapid displacement in the southern districts bordering Uzbekistan following the ousting of the country's president in April. This EMMA assessment focused on early recovery needs for four selected critical markets, including early potatoes, which represent an important source of food and income for farmers in low-lying areas of Osh and Jalal-Abad oblasts. The crisis in Kyrgyzstan has severely disrupted the early potato market system's functioning. This report recommends the following direct interventions: cash transfers to the most affected farmers, subsidized transportation linking farms and markets, vouchers for retailers to purchase from middlemen, cash for work for farmers to clear irrigation and other farm systems and crews to clean up markets and businesses. In addition, this report recommends the following indirect interventions: providing information about crops, prices, supply and demand, technical assistance, rehabilitation of irrigation systems and advocacy with the Kyrgyz, Kazak, Uzbek and Russian governments to reopen borders for trade.

Report authors: 
Бенджамин Барроуз и Евгения Гусева
Download Report (277.02 KB pdf)

In June 2010, the Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan experienced ethnic violence and rapid displacement in the southern districts bordering Uzbekistan following the ousting of the country's president in April. This EMMA assessment focused on early recovery needs for four selected critical markets, including corrugated galvanized iron (CGI), which is one of the most important building materials needed for reconstruction of homes and businesses damaged or destroyed in June. Following the crisis, the CGI market system is still functioning, but at reduced capacity. This report concludes that the CGI market system is healthy enough to not warrant direct intervention from the international community. This report recommends that NGOs dealing with shelter to identify processors and retailers able to absorb increased demand. It is recommended that CGI used in reconstruction be of domestic origin and purchased in the Kyrgyz market. The shelter cluster and other coordinating bodies are encouraged to provide strategic oversight and policy parameters for the purchasing of CGI for reconstruction anticipated in the coming months.

Report authors: 
Benjamin Barrows and Eugenia Gusev
Download Report (640.85 KB pdf)

Osh and Jalal-Abad oblasts
July, 2010

In June 2010, the Central Asian state of Kyrgyzstan experienced ethnic violence and rapid displacement in the southern districts bordering Uzbekistan following the ousting of the country's president in April. This EMMA assessment focused on early recovery needs for four selected critical markets, including cement, which is one of the most important building materials needed for reconstruction of homes and businesses damaged or destroyed in June. Following the crisis, the cement market system is still functioning, but at reduced capacity. This report concludes that the cement market system is healthy enough to not warrant direct intervention from the international community. It is therefore recommended that cement used in reconstruction be of domestic origin and purchased in the Kyrgyz market. The shelter cluster and other coordinating bodies are encouraged to provide strategic oversight and policy parameters for the purchasing of cement for reconstruction anticipated in the coming months.

Report authors: 
Benjamin Barrows, Eugenia Gusev
Download Report (652.32 KB pdf)

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