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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 31 - 40 of 115

Abiemnhom County, Unity State
January, 2015

In December 2013, the political fall-out between the president of South Sudan and his former vice president led to a gradual escalation of violence with wide ranging implications: the displacement of populations and their livestock, the disruption of agricultural production and the obstruction of trade routes and markets. These problems were further compounded by the severe impacts of a ban on trade between South Sudan and Sudan and by the seasonal flooding that occurred in 2014. This EMMA study examined the sorghum and livestock off-take market systems in Abiemnhom County, Unity State, approximately a year after the start of the conflict. It finds that the sorghum, cattle and shoats market system were functional, although there were significant disruptions, inefficiencies and bottlenecks. Short-term recommendations include supporting household purchasing power through food vouchers and unconditional cash transfers, as well as targeted support to businesses to reduce the risk of inflation.

Report authors: 
Mohamed M. Yussuf, Mohamed Ali
Download Report (2.05 MB pdf)

The Syrian conflict and violent conflicts within Iraq have related in the movement of almost one million Syrian refugees and Iraqi IDPs into Kurdistan in recent years. The Danish Refugee Council commissioned this EMMA in order to assess opportunities in livelihoods generation and access to income for Syrian refugees and IDPs living in and outside of camps, in order to inform its livelihoods programming. The influx of refugees and IDPs has increased pressure on the labor market in KRI. This is exacerbated by a drop in demand for construction due to conflicts between the KRI and the central Iraqi governments and a drop in demand for hospitality services due to insecurity in the region and the relative economic standstill. Though many NGOs are offering humanitarian assistance and cash for work programs to the target population, these interventions are of relatively low economic benefit to beneficiaries and are not a long-term solution. This assessment recommends the following responses in order to improve access to labor markets and income generation for Syrian refugees and Iraqi IDPs: improved efforts to target IDPs and refugees in non-camp settings with humanitarian assistance; raising the target groups' awareness of locally available jobs and building their capacity to find decent jobs; promoting job placement mechanisms; partnering with private sector actors to invest in potentially valuable value chains; promoting innovation in small enterprises; conducting market analyses on access to credit for small businesses and on agriculture and related labor; and advocating with humanitarian actors for a phase-out of short-term interventions.

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Report authors: 
Emmeline Saint
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Siti Zone, Somali Region
November, 2014

2011 was one of the driest years since 1950-51 in many pastoral zones in Ethiopia, leading to extreme food insecurity in the Somali region of the country.This assessment was conducted by Oxfam, Save the Children and Concern in order to determine the market systems' capacities to provide basic food products, including rice, pasta and sorghum, to the rural pastoralist communities during a severe drought and to judge what types of humanitarian responses might be required and feasible to ensure food security of these people during such a crisis situation. It found that all market systems studied seem to have the capacity to meet the respective needs of the population in Siti Zone – even during a severe drought. It suggests that cash based programming is a feasible alternative to in-kind distributions of food in Siti Zone. In this respect it would make sense to advocate for a policy change in the Somali region and try to motivate the responsible authorities to some pilot projects in which the government starts to distribute cash.

Report authors: 
David de Wild
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Since 2000, more than nine million Mozambicans have been affected by disasters caused by natural hazards, including floods and drought. Zambezia, one of the country's poorest provinces, is especially vulnerable to these hazards, which periodically displace large numbers of people and affect their usual sources of income. This market assessment adapted the EMMA methodology for the pre-crisis context and was intended to develop a baseline for seven market systems critical to EFSL as well as WaSH. The study found that the most appropriate response model for floods and hurricanes was a combination of cash for work (geared at rehabilitation of basic infrastructure for the operation of the market), complemented by unconditional cash transfers for especially vulnerable groups, along with market support actions, especially in the bleach market.

Report authors: 
Carlos Arenas
Download Report (1.29 MB pdf)

Piloting Innovation in Guatemala
June, 2014

This document presents the key findings and lessons learned from a pre-crisis market assessment that Oxfam conducted in Guatemala that attempted to look at how both emergency and long-term development needs can be addressed through markets programming. The impact of the assessment has been predominantly positive. It has led to been increased interest from other agencies in the region to both promoting and using cash transfer programs. Key successes included beginning the process with an HEA analysis, conducting a vulnerability and risk assessment and conducting a power analysis. Though both the GEM and EMMA approaches gave huge added value to the joint market analysis, there is still thinking to be done of better ways to integrate these for maximum impact. This integrated process can certainly help to approach programs that support sustainable livelihoods and resilience building. Yet agencies must be realistic in matching aspirations with capacity. Likewise, they must be ready – programmatically and financially – to take a long term approach to working with communities.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Davina Hayles, Emily Henderson, Daniel Morchain
Download Report (1.37 MB pdf)

This document presents a brief overview of an EMMA conducted in the Domincan Republic following Hurricane Sandy. The study focused on the chlorine market system and the capacity of governmental institutions to supply the population in the case of emergency.

Report authors: 
not specified
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December 2013 violence in South Sudan had killed thousands and displaced more than 900,000 people. It has also led to a serious deterioration in the food security situation, and some 3.7 million people are at high risk of food insecurity in the coming year. Food partners have so far reached about 865,000 people under the emergency operation between January and April 2014 with most of the food being distributed in-kind. The objectives of this market analysis were for Oxfam to explore alternatives to in-kind food aid in its different areas of interventions and to create a market baseline for three critical market systems, including red sorghum, maize flour and soap. This report recommends the following response activities: advocacy for integrating maize flour into the food aid distributed, and procuring both maize and sorghum food aid through Juba vendors; commodity vouchers for soap distribution; value vouchers as a top-up for basic needs; and conducting market analyses in other Oxfam intervention areas in South Sudan.

Report authors: 
Hélène Juillard
Download Report (1.4 MB pdf)

Abyei Administrative Area, Nothern El Ghazal and Western Bahr el Ghazal
March, 2014

On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in the South Sudanese capital of Juba, and the conflict quickly spread to other areas of the country. Nearly 709,000 people were displaced within the country, leading to a food security crisis and extreme insecurity. Mercy Corps, Goal and SPEDP organized this EMMA assessment between February and March 2014 in Abyei Administrative Area, Western Bahr el Ghazal and Northern Bahr el Ghazal. Sorghum was selected as a critical market system for the assessment given its importance for food security for the local households. During the emergency year, the market was not only affected by the crisis, but also by a severe flood. This assessment recommends in-kind provision of sorghum to increase food availability; cash transfers to increase purchasing power; commodity vouchers for extremely vulnerable households; and direct distribution of seeds and commodity vouchers for tools during the upcoming planting season.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Kathmandu
February, 2014

As a part of its National Humanitarian Capacity Building for Urban Risk Management, Oxfam organized a five-day EMMA training intended to enhance the capacity of WaSH actors in Nepal to design and implement market-based interventions during future emergencies.The training included practical research on the baseline drinking water market system in two IDP camps near Kathmandu that was intended to inform earthquake preparedness activities; in this sense, the study was more a PCMMA than an EMMA. This report documents both the training that took place and the market-related findings and does not follow the standard format for an EMMA or PCMMA report. Recommendations were made for each of the IDP camps visited during the training.

Report authors: 
Mandira Singh Shrestha
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Communes de Simiri, Ouallam, Tondikiwindi et Banibangou, Région de Tillabéry
February, 2014

Le Niger fait face à des épisodes de crises alimentaires de plus en plus rapprochés qui ne permettent pas aux populations les plus pauvres d'avoir la capacité de se relever entre deux crises. Selon l'analyse de la campagne agricole 2013-14, plus de 1 million de personnes au Niger ont été en insécurité alimentaire. La zone de Ouallam est particulièrement touchée. Oxfam a souhaité faire cette étude PCMMA pour avoir plus d’informations sur le fonctionnement des marchés des denrées de base - spécifiquement, le mil et le mais - en période de soudure dans cette même zone. Ce rapport propose les recommendations suivantes pour aider la population à réaliser la sécurité alimentaire : une intervention à travers des transferts de cash ou coupons aux mois de février/mars d’une mauvaise année ; d'utiliser les indicateurs précoces de mauvaise année identifiés dans cette étude afin de faire des interventions précoces pertinentes et qui éviteront d’agir quand il est déjà trop tard ; une interaction stratégique avec les collecteurs qui vont chercher les produits dans les zones reculées ; et d’assurer un soutien à l’autonomisation des femmes en leur permettant d’accéder elles-mêmes aux intrants maraichers en début de saison.

Report authors: 
Marie Boulinaud
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