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Search EMMA and PCMA reports and related case studies

Browse our library of reports and case studies by country, market system or report type. Though the PCMA approach was only formally named as such in 2014, quite a few EMMA studies from earlier years were essentially early PCMAs. The reports in this library are therefore categorized “pre-crisis” if they are focused on developing market baselines and/or preparing for anticipated crises, and they are categorized “post-crisis” if they are primarily focused on responding to a recent or ongoing emergency.

Displaying 31 - 40 of 118

Badin District, Sindh Province
August, 2015

2010 and 2011 saw the worst floods in the history of Pakistan. In Sindh Province, the floods led to loss of life and also damaged standing crops, household and livestock food stocks, health, education and road infrastructure, houses, irrigation and drainage facilities and protected drinking water sources. This report presents the findings and recommendations for a PCMMA of the rice market system in Sindh's Badin District. During and after a future flood emergency, the rice market system in Badin should be able to provide the needed volume of rice, provided that the very serious transportation and access issues can be overcome. For a future humanitarian response, this report recommends in-kind provision of locally procured rice to the most vulnerable households for the first month of intense flooding, to be replaced by unconditional cash grants to cover rice needs, along with support to selected retailers to transport rice efficiently. It also recommends several activities focused on emergency preparedness, including a mapping and communication exercise focused on identifying key transport routes and land areas that are vulnerable to flooding; the development and implementation of longer-term agricultural development/poverty eradication programst; and advocacy at the national-level food security cluster for consistent provision of the complete caloric requirements for the poorest households in emergencies.

Report authors: 
Emily Sloane and Muhammad Ali
Download Report (1.21 MB pdf)

Axe Bertoua-Garoua Boulai, Frontière RCA
January, 2015

Depuis décembre 2013 la crise en Centrafrique a provoqué la fuite en masse de civils au Cameroun et aux autre pays. SI a lancé cette étude de marché sur trois systèmes de marchés critiques (le riz importé, la farine de manioc et l’eau) pour mieux appréhender le contexte en matière de sécurité alimentaire et moyens d’existence. Ce rapport propose le plaidoyer pour que les rations alimentaires soit à minima achetée en local; une pilote pour une ration distribuée à travers une combinaison de modalités; une étude EMMA sur les systèmes de marché du lait et de la viande; la distribution en nature d’intrants; la vulgarisation agricole; la vulgarisation de techniques de séchage et de nettoyage; la motorisation de certains points d’eau; une étude hydrogéologique pour la zone Bertoua-GB; l'appui aux détaillants en eau; des vouchers eau pour les réfugiés; et la distribution de bidon de stockage en nature.

Report authors: 
Hélène Juillard
Download Report (1.85 MB pdf)

Abiemnhom County, Unity State
January, 2015

In December 2013, the political fall-out between the president of South Sudan and his former vice president led to a gradual escalation of violence with wide ranging implications: the displacement of populations and their livestock, the disruption of agricultural production and the obstruction of trade routes and markets. These problems were further compounded by the severe impacts of a ban on trade between South Sudan and Sudan and by the seasonal flooding that occurred in 2014. This EMMA study examined the sorghum and livestock off-take market systems in Abiemnhom County, Unity State, approximately a year after the start of the conflict. It finds that the sorghum, cattle and shoats market system were functional, although there were significant disruptions, inefficiencies and bottlenecks. Short-term recommendations include supporting household purchasing power through food vouchers and unconditional cash transfers, as well as targeted support to businesses to reduce the risk of inflation.

Report authors: 
Mohamed M. Yussuf, Mohamed Ali
Download Report (2.05 MB pdf)

Leer County, Unity State
January, 2015

In December 2013, conflict along tribal lines started in Juba, the capital of South Sudan and soon spread to six of the country's ten states. Unity State's Leer County was badly affected by active conflict at the beginning of 2014. In Leer, the county's capitol, large traders have fled, and the main trade routes are blocked by active conflict and localized flooding. This report presents the results of an EMMA that Mercy Corps conducted in Leer County on the livestock, sorghum and sheep and goat markets, which traditionally provide a means of survival for vulnerable households. It proposes a number of response options designed to support the food security of households in Leer County. Depending on how the conflict evolves over the next few months, it recommends one or more of the following options: direct support to conflict-affected households to access key food items and assets and to diversify income sources; support to a variety of market actors to restore market function and possibly strengthen market systems, including support services; and support to farmers to increase agricultural production.

Report authors: 
Mohamed Ali, Carol Ward
Download Report (2.4 MB pdf)

The Syrian conflict and violent conflicts within Iraq have related in the movement of almost one million Syrian refugees and Iraqi IDPs into Kurdistan in recent years. The Danish Refugee Council commissioned this EMMA in order to assess opportunities in livelihoods generation and access to income for Syrian refugees and IDPs living in and outside of camps, in order to inform its livelihoods programming. The influx of refugees and IDPs has increased pressure on the labor market in KRI. This is exacerbated by a drop in demand for construction due to conflicts between the KRI and the central Iraqi governments and a drop in demand for hospitality services due to insecurity in the region and the relative economic standstill. Though many NGOs are offering humanitarian assistance and cash for work programs to the target population, these interventions are of relatively low economic benefit to beneficiaries and are not a long-term solution. This assessment recommends the following responses in order to improve access to labor markets and income generation for Syrian refugees and Iraqi IDPs: improved efforts to target IDPs and refugees in non-camp settings with humanitarian assistance; raising the target groups' awareness of locally available jobs and building their capacity to find decent jobs; promoting job placement mechanisms; partnering with private sector actors to invest in potentially valuable value chains; promoting innovation in small enterprises; conducting market analyses on access to credit for small businesses and on agriculture and related labor; and advocating with humanitarian actors for a phase-out of short-term interventions.


Report authors: 
Emmeline Saint
Download Report (4.14 MB pdf)

Siti Zone, Somali Region
November, 2014

2011 was one of the driest years since 1950-51 in many pastoral zones in Ethiopia, leading to extreme food insecurity in the Somali region of the country.This assessment was conducted by Oxfam, Save the Children and Concern in order to determine the market systems' capacities to provide basic food products, including rice, pasta and sorghum, to the rural pastoralist communities during a severe drought and to judge what types of humanitarian responses might be required and feasible to ensure food security of these people during such a crisis situation. It found that all market systems studied seem to have the capacity to meet the respective needs of the population in Siti Zone – even during a severe drought. It suggests that cash based programming is a feasible alternative to in-kind distributions of food in Siti Zone. In this respect it would make sense to advocate for a policy change in the Somali region and try to motivate the responsible authorities to some pilot projects in which the government starts to distribute cash.

Report authors: 
David de Wild
Download Report (804.04 KB pdf)



Report type:

Since 2000, more than nine million Mozambicans have been affected by disasters caused by natural hazards, including floods and drought. Zambezia, one of the country's poorest provinces, is especially vulnerable to these hazards, which periodically displace large numbers of people and affect their usual sources of income. This market assessment adapted the EMMA methodology for the pre-crisis context and was intended to develop a baseline for seven market systems critical to EFSL as well as WaSH. The study found that the most appropriate response model for floods and hurricanes was a combination of cash for work (geared at rehabilitation of basic infrastructure for the operation of the market), complemented by unconditional cash transfers for especially vulnerable groups, along with market support actions, especially in the bleach market.

Report authors: 
Carlos Arenas
Download Report (1.29 MB pdf)

Piloting Innovation in Guatemala
June, 2014

This document presents the key findings and lessons learned from a pre-crisis market assessment that Oxfam conducted in Guatemala that attempted to look at how both emergency and long-term development needs can be addressed through markets programming. The impact of the assessment has been predominantly positive. It has led to been increased interest from other agencies in the region to both promoting and using cash transfer programs. Key successes included beginning the process with an HEA analysis, conducting a vulnerability and risk assessment and conducting a power analysis. Though both the GEM and EMMA approaches gave huge added value to the joint market analysis, there is still thinking to be done of better ways to integrate these for maximum impact. This integrated process can certainly help to approach programs that support sustainable livelihoods and resilience building. Yet agencies must be realistic in matching aspirations with capacity. Likewise, they must be ready – programmatically and financially – to take a long term approach to working with communities.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Davina Hayles, Emily Henderson, Daniel Morchain
Download Report (1.37 MB pdf)

This document presents a brief overview of an EMMA conducted in the Domincan Republic following Hurricane Sandy. The study focused on the chlorine market system and the capacity of governmental institutions to supply the population in the case of emergency.

Report authors: 
not specified
Download Report (362.02 KB pdf)



Report type:

December 2013 violence in South Sudan had killed thousands and displaced more than 900,000 people. It has also led to a serious deterioration in the food security situation, and some 3.7 million people are at high risk of food insecurity in the coming year. Food partners have so far reached about 865,000 people under the emergency operation between January and April 2014 with most of the food being distributed in-kind. The objectives of this market analysis were for Oxfam to explore alternatives to in-kind food aid in its different areas of interventions and to create a market baseline for three critical market systems, including red sorghum, maize flour and soap. This report recommends the following response activities: advocacy for integrating maize flour into the food aid distributed, and procuring both maize and sorghum food aid through Juba vendors; commodity vouchers for soap distribution; value vouchers as a top-up for basic needs; and conducting market analyses in other Oxfam intervention areas in South Sudan.

Report authors: 
Hélène Juillard
Download Report (1.4 MB pdf)