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Northern Province
April, 2011

Currently, northern Sri Lanka is recovering from two different crises: the decades-long civil war between the government forces and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam that ended in May 2009, and recent flooding due to heavy rainfall in January and February 2011 in the north and east of the country. This report presents the results of a rapid analysis of the rice market system in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka that took place shortly after the floods. The rice market system is functional, although with significant inefficiencies and imbalance of market power that could be ameliorated with interventions. The long-term conflict caused underdevelopment of infrastructure and insufficient services in the region. While direct flood damage in the region was relatively minor, the indirect and ongoing losses caused by unexpected rainy weather are high. Short to medium-term recommendations include supporting storage and irrigation, diversifying production, improving market information and developing small enterprises with mills and equipment. Long-term development suggestions include supporting the growth of farmer organizations, constructing more sophisticated storage and financing options and the facilitation of higher-value rice production.

Report authors: 
Laura Meissner
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Abyei Administrative Area, Nothern El Ghazal and Western Bahr el Ghazal
March, 2014

On December 15, 2013, fighting broke out in the South Sudanese capital of Juba, and the conflict quickly spread to other areas of the country. Nearly 709,000 people were displaced within the country, leading to a food security crisis and extreme insecurity. Mercy Corps, Goal and SPEDP organized this EMMA assessment between February and March 2014 in Abyei Administrative Area, Western Bahr el Ghazal and Northern Bahr el Ghazal. Sorghum was selected as a critical market system for the assessment given its importance for food security for the local households. During the emergency year, the market was not only affected by the crisis, but also by a severe flood. This assessment recommends in-kind provision of sorghum to increase food availability; cash transfers to increase purchasing power; commodity vouchers for extremely vulnerable households; and direct distribution of seeds and commodity vouchers for tools during the upcoming planting season.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Upper Nile, Warrap and Western Bahr el Ghazal
February, 2013

South Sudan faces chronic food insecurity. This study of markets in three South Sudanese states looks at the appropriateness of cash transfer programming in food security responses and assesses whether markets could respond adequately to increased demand without causing inflation. During the emergency year, vulnerable households in all three states faced a severe deficit in their ability to purchase basic foods due to severely reduced yields and decreased income levels. The sorghum market saw higher prices, lower demand and high inflation. The report suggests that supporting purchasing power alone will not be sufficient to meet people’s needs because of the risk of inflation. Therefore, this assessment suggests activities designed to improve the functioning of the market in addition to improving consumers' purchasing power. Contingency funds and other flexible funding are recommended to limit risks associated with this volatile environment. It is also advised that short-term programs need to be coherent with longer-term ones that focus on addressing the chronic issues that inhibit resilience building.

Report authors: 
Davina Jeffery
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The number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon is expected to exceed one million by the end of 2013. Tensions between host and refugee populations are expected to rise as competition over jobs and resources becomes even more important to the survival of both communities. This EMMA assessment was launched to analyze the key market systems upon which refugees and vulnerable host communities rely for income in the North and Bekaa Governorates of Lebanon in order to identify opportunities for humanitarian agencies to promote market-based income-earning possibilities for host and refugee populations. This report provides a summary of the findings for three market systems that are critical for refugee and Lebanese host communities as source of income, namely construction labor, agricultural labor, and service-sector labor. The opportunities for promoting or strengthening livelihoods related to the construction, services, or agricultural labor sectors are very limited. Each of these sectors has been significantly impacted by the crisis in Syria and is not capable of absorbing additional workers at a livable wage. Despite this bleak outlook, the EMMA makes several recommendations for narrowing the household income gap through vocational training, market-smart humanitarian programs, household financial assistance programs and the strengthening of local labor markets.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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North and Bekaa
April, 2013

The number of Syrian refugees in Lebanon is expected to exceed one million by the end of 2013. Tensions between host and refugee populations are expected to rise as competition over jobs and resources becomes even more important to the survival of both communities. This EMMA assessment was launched to analyze the key market systems upon which refugees and vulnerable host communities rely for income in the North and Bekaa Governorates of Lebanon in order to identify opportunities for humanitarian agencies to promote market-based income-earning possibilities for host and refugee populations. This report focuses specifically on construction labor and finds that this market system has been drastically impacted by the crisis in Syria and that construction-related income-earning opportunities are now very limited. It recommends building construction-related livelihood opportunities into humanitarian programs, particularly shelter and rehabilitation programs with construction components. It also suggests linking refugees and Lebanese workers with employment services and training.

Report authors: 
Not specified
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Years of blockades and the depletion of natural resources have severely impacted prospects for economic development of the Gaza Strip. As of 2012, more than one million people in Gaza were living below the poverty line. This report presents the results of an early PCMMA of the wheat flour market system, which is very important in the local economy and local diets. The study considers the likely impact of two hypothetical but possible scenarios on the wheat flour market system. Because of low purchasing power and high food prices, poor households in Gaza are heavily reliant on aid agencies to supply most of their wheat flour needs. This report suggests two additional critical issues that need to be considered: price adaptations in case of increases in private demand and the purchasing power of the food aid beneficiaries. It recommends providing cash and/or vouchers for wheat flour to increase household purchasing power and creating strategic grain reserves in Gaza to control wheat flour prices.

Report authors: 
not specified
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents the results and recommendations of an EMMA of the credit market system that sought to build on the findings of previous assessments looking at household asset holdings and losses by mapping out the various sources of credit available in the targeted region. While there is a wide array of credit options available to households in the two districts, the services do not reach the majority of the resettled people, particularly the recent returnees. The report recommends increasing loan funds available to CBOs and cooperative societies; improving the organizational capacity of cooperative organizations; using financial literacy workshops/training as a tool to link households with financial institutions; and advocacy for changes in the collateral and loan structure requirements of the formal banking system and for the expansion of credit.

Report authors: 
Dr. Neavis Morais, Gregory Matthews, Saviriappu Thevathas, Sinniah Kokularajah
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Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu Districts, Northern Province
May, 2012

More than three decades of armed conflict in Sri Lanka led to a steady deterioration of the food security situation along with social and economic infrastructure in Sri Lanka's Northern Province. Kilinochchi and Mullaitivu are two districts in the north that were severely affected in the final phase of the war during January to May 2009. In mid-2009, resettlement programs began returning those displaced in the war to their home communities in these two districts. This report presents the results and recommendations of an EMMA of the red rice market system to better understand the availability of red rice in local markets and any constraints facing the market system. This analysis shows that the supply in these regions is sufficient to meet the need of the target population, but that consumers have limited access to this supply due to low purchasing power. Its recommendations include cash for work activities, indirect interventions, and advocacy to strengthen the red rice supply market system in the two districts.

Report authors: 
Gregory Matthews, Rajesh Dhungel, Sinnasamy Raguraamamurty, Karthika Tharmalingam, Paramanathapillai Seran
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This report covers the second pilot test of the EMMA Toolkit, conducted in Ayeyarwady Delta during July 2008, in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis. It provides key findings on the fishing net and roofing material market systems before providing an in-depth discussion of lessons learned and recommendations for using the EMMA methodology in the future.

Report authors: 
Mike Albu, Anita Auerbach
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Piloting Innovation in Guatemala
June, 2014

This document presents the key findings and lessons learned from a pre-crisis market assessment that Oxfam conducted in Guatemala that attempted to look at how both emergency and long-term development needs can be addressed through markets programming. The impact of the assessment has been predominantly positive. It has led to been increased interest from other agencies in the region to both promoting and using cash transfer programs. Key successes included beginning the process with an HEA analysis, conducting a vulnerability and risk assessment and conducting a power analysis. Though both the GEM and EMMA approaches gave huge added value to the joint market analysis, there is still thinking to be done of better ways to integrate these for maximum impact. This integrated process can certainly help to approach programs that support sustainable livelihoods and resilience building. Yet agencies must be realistic in matching aspirations with capacity. Likewise, they must be ready – programmatically and financially – to take a long term approach to working with communities.

Report authors: 
Carol Brady, Davina Hayles, Emily Henderson, Daniel Morchain
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